Dr Mohamed Aly El-Erian

USA/Egypt / Born: 19 August 1958 / The Economist & Financier

Dr Mohamed Aly El-Erian - is an Egyptian-American businessman. He served as chair of President Obama's Global Development Council (2012–17),and is a columnist for Bloomberg View, and a contributing editor to the Financial Times.

With more than two million followers on LinkedIn, Dr Mohamed Aly El-Erian is one of the world’s most watched, followed and respected businessmen. The son of Egyptian diplomats, grew up in Egypt, the United States of America and Europe.

In the last decade, Dr. El-Erian has cemented his position as one of the world’s most eminent economists and analysts. Dr El-Erian served as CEO and co-CIO of global investment management firm PIMCO between 2007 and 2014 and was selected in 2012 as Chair of former US President Barack Obama’s Global Development Council. During this time, Dr El-Erian was named among Foreign Policy’s ‘Top 100 Global Thinkers’ for four years in a row.

Dr El-Erian’s economic expertise and ability to connect with followers on social media meant he was even once rumoured to be considered for the position of head of government in Egypt following Egypt’s 25 January revolution.

As quoted - “It dawned on me that I was missing an infinitely more important point. As much as I could rationalize it – as I had rationalized it – my work-life balance had gotten way out of whack, and the imbalance was hurting my very special relationship with my daughter. I was not making nearly enough time for her.”

Since then, Dr El-Erian, who is also an active philanthropist, has continued to spread his knowledge. He is currently a Financial Times contributing editor, a Bloomberg Opinion columnist, a part-time Practice Professor at Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and a New York Times best-selling author.

After attending St John's School, Leatherhead, a boarding school in England, he gained a scholarship to Queens' College, Cambridge and received a bachelor's degree in economics in 1980. He later obtained a master's degree (1983) and a doctorate (1985) in economics from St Antony's College, Oxford. In June 2011, El-Erian received an honorary doctorate degree from the American University in Cairo. In December 2013, he became an honorary fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge.

El-Erian has served on the board of trustees of several educational institutions, including Pegasus, St. Margaret School. Cambridge in America and KAUST. He co-chairs the capital campaign for Cambridge University. He was also the keynote speaker at the 2014 CME Conference along with Ben Bernanke and Colin Powell. He has also spoken before the Economic Club of Canada, Soka University, ProBono Economics, Boston Security Analysts, Rabobank, Citadel, ETF, National Rural Utilities Cooperative, Cisco, BTG Pactual, Euromoney, NMS, Mortgage Bankers Association, CME, Rabobank, the Global Financial Forum and many others. In March 2015 he was a featured speaker at the Egypt Economic Development Conference in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Dr. Dambisa Moyo

USA/Zambia / Born: 2 February 1969
Economist/Author - Time Magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in the World

Dr. Dambisa Moyo is a pre-eminent thinker, author who influences key decision-makers in strategic investment and public policy.
Dambisa Felicia Moyo born in Zambian, now better known as an economist and author who analyzes the macroeconomy and global affairs.
Moyo resides in New York City. She is an avid runner, and has run several marathons and half marathons.

She currently serves on the boards of Chevron Corporation and the 3M Company.
She worked for two years at the World Bank and eight years at Goldman Sachs before becoming an author and international public speaker.

She has written four New York Times bestselling books:
Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa (2009)
How the West Was Lost: Fifty Years of Economic Folly – And the Stark Choices that Lie Ahead (2011)
Winner Take All: China's Race for Resources and What It Means for the World (2012)
The most recent Edge of Chaos: Why Democracy Is Failing to Deliver Economic Growth – and How to Fix It (2018).

She holds a bachelor's degree in chemistry and an MBA from American University, an MPA from the Harvard Kennedy School, and a DPhil in economics from the University of Oxford
She is respected for her unique perspectives, her balance of contrarian thinking with measured judgment, and her ability to turn economic insight into investible ideas.
Dambisa was named to the list of Time Magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in the World; has published in the Financial Times, WSJ, Barrons, Harvard Business Review and has travelled to 65 countries.

Moyo is a member of the World Economic Forum's (WEF) Global Agenda Council on Global Economic Imbalances, and spoke at the 2005 annual WEF conference in Davos.
In 2009 she spoke at the Council on Foreign Relations the American Enterprise Institute, and was one of the two debaters on the winning side of the 2009 Munk Debate, where the subject was foreign aid.
She was a participant at the annual Bilderberg Conference in 2010, while in 2011 she spoke at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
In 2013 she was a participant at the U.S. Federal Reserve's Jackson Hole Economic Symposium, spoke at the Aspen Institute and the Ambrosetti Forum.
She spoke again at the World Economic Forum in 2020 in Davos. She is also a member of the Bretton Woods Committee and a regular contributor to Project Syndicate since 2013.

Elon Musk

USA/South Africa / Born: 28 June 1971
Founder Tesla/SpaceX/OpenAI/The Boring Company

Elon Musk is an engineer, industrial designer, technology entrepreneur and philanthropist.

Musk was born to a Canadian mother and South African father and raised in Pretoria, South Africa. He is based in the United States, where he immigrated to at age 20 and has resided since.

He briefly attended the University of Pretoria before moving to Canada when he was 17 to attend Queen's University. He transferred to the University of Pennsylvania two years later, where he received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School and a bachelor's degree in physics from the College of Arts and Sciences. He moved to California in 1995 to begin a Ph.D. in applied physics and material sciences at Stanford University, but decided to pursue a business career instead of enrolling.

He co-founded Zip2, a web software company, which was acquired by Compaq for $340 million in 1999. Musk then founded X.com, an online bank. It merged with Confinity in 2000, which had launched PayPal the previous year and was subsequently bought by eBay for $1.5 billion in October 2002.

He is the founder, CEO and chief engineer/designer of SpaceX; early investor CEO and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; founder of The Boring Company; co-founder of Neuralink; and co-founder and initial co-chairman of OpenAI. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2018. In December 2016, he was ranked 21st on the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People, and was ranked joint-first on the Forbes list of the Most Innovative Leaders of 2019. As of July 2020 his net worth was estimated at $46.3 billion and he is listed by Forbes as the 31st-richest person in the world. He is the longest tenured CEO of any automotive manufacturer globally.

In 2015, Musk co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit research company that aims to promote friendly artificial intelligence. In July 2016, he co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing brain–computer interfaces. In December 2016, Musk founded The Boring Company, an infrastructure and tunnel construction company focused on tunnels optimized for electric vehicles.

Patrick Soon-Shiong

USA/South Africa / Born: 29 July 1952
Transplant Surgeon/Businessman/Bioscientist/Media Proprietor

Patrick Soon-Shiong is a South African-American transplant surgeon, billionaire businessman, bioscientist, and media proprietor. He is the inventor of the drug Abraxane, which became known for its efficacy against lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer. Soon-Shiong is the founder of NantWorks, a network of healthcare, biotech, and artificial intelligence startups; an adjunct professor of surgery and executive director of the Wireless Health Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles; and a visiting professor at Imperial College London and Dartmouth College. Soon-Shiong has published more than 100 scientific papers and has more than 230 issued patents worldwide on advancements spanning numerous fields in technology and medicine.

Soon-Shiong graduated 4th out of his class of 189 from the University of Witwatersrand, receiving a bachelor's degree in medicine (MBBCh) at age 23. He completed his medical internship at Johannesburg's General Hospital. He then studied at the University of British Columbia, where he earned a master's degree in 1979, with research awards from the American College of Surgeons, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, and the American Association of Academic Surgery.

Soon-Shiong is the chairman of three non-profit organizations: the Chan Soon-Shiong Family Foundation, which aims to fund research and erase disparities in access to health care and education; the Chan Soon-Shiong Institute for Advanced Health, which is focused on changing the way health information is shared; and the Healthcare Transformation Institute, a partnership with the University of Arizona and Arizona State University. He has been a minority owner of the Los Angeles Lakers since 2010, and since June 2018, he has been the owner and executive chairman of the Los Angeles Times and The San Diego Union-Tribune. As of March 2020, Soon-Shiong is estimated by Forbes to have a net worth of US$6.9 billion. He has committed to the Giving Pledge and has pledged to give away at least half of his wealth to philanthropy.

In September 2014, NantWorks LLC, a company headed by Soon-Shiong, invested $2.5 million in AccuRadio. In 2015, NantWorks LLC, invested in Wibbitz in their $8 million series B funding. In February 2018, the Los Angeles Times reported that Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital reached a deal to purchase the paper and The San Diego Union-Tribune from Tronc Inc. for "nearly $500 million in cash" as well as the assumption of $90 million in pension obligations. Soon-Shiong, with this acquisition, became one of the first Asian-Americans to be a media proprietor through ownership in a major daily newspaper in the United States. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.

In September 2018, his company NantEnergy announced the development of a zinc air battery with a projected cost of $100 per kilowatt-hour (less than one-third the cost of lithium-ion batteries).

Nathan "Natie" Kirsh

USA/South Africa / Born: 6 January 1932)
Founder: Kirsh Group

Nathan "Natie" Kirsh is a Swazi-South African billionaire businessman. He heads the Kirsh Group, which holds a majority stake in New York cash and carry operation Jetro Holdings, owner of Restaurant Depot and Jetro Cash & Carry.
The Group also holds equity and investments in Australia, Eswatini, the UK, the US, and Israel.

Nathan "Natie" Kirsh was born in South Africa, and grew up in a Jewish family in Potchefstroom, where he matriculated from Potchefstroom Boys High, in 1949.Kirsh earned a Bachelor of Commerce at the University of the Witwatersrand, in 1952. He also holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Swaziland.

Forbes estimated his wealth at $5.2 billion in October 2019, making him the 386th richest person in the world.
He was also listed on the UK’s Sunday Times Rich List 2018, and was named as the wealthiest person in Swaziland by Forbes.

Sir Kenneth Aphunezi Olisa

Nigeria/Britain / Born: 13 October 1951
Businessman and philanthropist.

Sir Kenneth Aphunezi Olisa, born in Nottingham of a Nigerian father and a British mother, Olisa's technology career commenced in the 1970s at IBM after he won a scholarship while an undergraduate at the University of Cambridge, where he studied Natural Sciences and then Social, Political and Management Sciences at Fitzwilliam College. Olisa married Julia Sherwood in Cambridge in 1976.

He is the first black Lord-Lieutenant of Greater London. He founded and led the AIM-listed technology merchant bank Interregnum and now leads Restoration Partners. Ken Olisa is Past Master of the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists and has served and serves on several boards of philanthropic, educational and regulator organisations.

Sir Kenneth with his wife endowed the Olisa Library at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge.

Olisa then founded Interregnum, the technology merchant bank, leading it through its early growth, its entry into and exit from a joint venture with BDO Stoy Hayward, the AIM IPO in 2000. He was also a principal advisor to, and director of, uDate.com, which was later sold to Barry Diller's USA Interactive in 2003. Olisa retired from Interregnum in 2006 and now runs Restoration Partners.

Olisa has considerable public company board-level experience on both sides of the Atlantic. He was the first British-born black man to serve on the Board of a major UK public company (Reuters) and is a former non-executive director of Thomson Reuters (where he was a member of the Audit Committee), and is also a former non-executive director and Deputy Chairman of the Institute of Directors. He was a Director and Chairman of the Remuneration Committee of Canada's largest independent software developer, Open Text Corporation. More recently, he served as a non-executive director of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) from 2007 and from which he was fired over governance concerns after which he coined the expression "More Soviet than City" to describe the way he and Sir Richard Sykes had been treated.

He also serves on the boards of, or is an adviser to, several privately held and innovative companies including the UK's leading corporate governance advisor Independent Audit. Olisa is also Chairman of the Thebes Group and not for profit Shaw Trust

In 2009, The Sunday Times named him Not for Profit non-executive director of the year, and in 2016 he was voted number one in the Powerlist's Top 10 most influential British black people.

In November 2017, Olisa succeeded Adedotun Sulaiman as the Chairman of Interswitch and in 2018 he joined the Board of Huawei (UK).

Soni Olufemi Oyekan

Nigeria/USA / Born: 1 June 1946
Chemical Engineer, Inventor, Entrepreneur, Author, Mentor and Educatora

Soni Oyekan was born in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and came to the United States to study in 1966. Soni completed his high school studies at St. Paul's College, Zaria, in 1963, and his advanced high school education at Olivet Baptist High School in Oyo, Oyo in 1965.

Oyekan was a recipient of an African Scholarship Program of American Universities (ASPAU) award which was administered by the Africa-America Institute (AAI) in 1966.
The scholarship award enabled Soni to pursue his studies in Engineering and Applied Sciences with specialization in Chemical Engineering at Yale University. He completed his Bachelor of Science degree program at Yale University in 1970.

Oyekan has received several awards and recognition for his contributions in oil refining, chemical engineering and in the mentoring of engineers and technical personnel.
He is a member of the AIChE Foundation Board of Trustees and was elected as a Fellow of the AIChE in 1999.
He is active in the AIChE Minority Affairs Committee (MAC) and was honored with its Distinguished Service award in 2000.

The Fuels and Petrochemicals Division honored him with its Distinguished Service award in 2002.
Dr Soni Oyekan was named an Eminent Black Chemical Engineer at the AIChE Centennial Meeting in 2008.
He was the recipient of the AIChE William W. Grimes award for excellence in chemical engineering and for the mentoring of under represented minority groups in 2008.

Soni Oyekan was the recipient of the 2009 Percy Lavon Julian Award. The Percy Julian award is the most prestigious honor given by the National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers (NOBCChE). The award recognizes and honors a recipient's scientific contributions and achievements, dedication to research, commitment to the educational development of others and passion for the chemistry profession.

Oyekan is currently a member of the Foundation Board of Trustees of AIChE, and a member of Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi honor societies, and of the Yale Manuscript Society.
He is listed in the 2000 13th edition of Who's Who Among African Americans.

Soni Oyekan has 15 patents including 5 US patents and over 70 publications on a variety of topics in petroleum refining and catalysis. He has contributed over the years in numerous technical discussions on petroleum refining at the annual National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) Q&A conferences.
NPRA is now the American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM).

He is a co-author of "Catalyst Regeneration and Continuous Reforming Issues" with P. K. Doolin and D. J. Zalewski, in Catalytic Naphtha Reforming (2004).
Oyekan is the author of Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process (2018).

Roelof Botha

USA/South Africa / Born: 19 September 1973
Venture Capitalist - Sequoia Capital

Roelof Botha is a partner at Sequoia Capital investing in seed / Series A companies and beyond.

Botha was born in Pretoria, South Africa, and at the age of six he moved to Cape Town with his parents. He was raised in Hout Bay, a suburb of Cape Town, and attended Hoërskool Jan van Riebeeck. Botha earned a BSc in Actuarial Science, Economics, and Statistics from the University of Cape Town, graduating in 1996 with the highest GPA in the history of the program.

Botha worked as a business analyst at McKinsey & Co., Johannesburg, from August 1996 through June 1998. He then moved to the United States, where he attended the Stanford University Graduate School of Business from 1998 through 2000 and received an MBA, where he was the Henry Ford II Scholar as Stanford GSB valedictorian.

Currently sits on the boards of MongoDB, Jawbone, Eventbrite, Evernote, Bird, Ethos, Mahalo, Natera, Nimbula, Square, Tokbox, Tumblr, Weebly, Unity, Whisper and Xoom. He also works with AssureRX, FutureAdvisor, Instagram, Mixpanel and MuSigma. He previously sat on the board of directors of Meebo and YouTube before they were each acquired by Google.

On Forbes' Midas List, an annual ranking of venture capital professionals, he ranked 22nd in 2008 and 26th in 2009. He is a regular member of the Midas List and has continued to move up the ranks to #14 in 2018.

In 2000, prior to his graduation from Stanford, Botha became director of corporate development for PayPal. He moved on to vice-president of finance and was named CFO in September 2001. Botha was 28 when PayPal went public in February 2002. The company was purchased by eBay in October 2002. Botha left to join Sequoia Capital in January 2003.

At Sequoia, Botha oversaw the firm's investment in YouTube, Instagram, and Square, among others. He also helped to plan the acquisition of Xoom by PayPal. In 2017, Botha took over lead responsibility for Sequoia's US operations from Jim Goetz.

Kase Lukman Lawal

USA/Nigeria / Born: 30 June 1954
Founder CAMAC International

Kase Lukman Lawal born in Ibadan however a Nigerian-born businessman lives and works in the United States.

Lawal arrived stateside in 1972 and initially enrolled as a chemical engineering major at Georgia Institute of Technology. He soon switched to Houston’s Texas Southern University where he earned a bachelor of science in chemistry. He continued his education at Prairie View A&M University of Texas, earning a master’s of business administration (MBA) in finance and marketing.

During Lawal’s early career he held a variety of positions, both technical and financial. He was president of Baker Kase Investments, a real estate mortgage and investment company and vice president of Suncrest Investment Corporation. On the technical side, Lawal worked as a research chemist for Dresser Industries and as a process engineer for Shell Oil Refining Company.

He obtained his Bachelor of Science in chemistry from Texas Southern University in 1976, and his MBA from Prairie View A&M University, Texas in 1978. He is the chairman and chief executive officer of CAMAC International Corporation, chairman and chief executive officer of Erin Energy Corporation, and chairman of Allied Energy Corporation in Houston, Texas, Chairman/Chief Executive Officer, CAMAC HOLDINGS; vice chairman, Port of Houston Authority Commission.

He also serves as a member of the board of directors and is a significant shareholder in Unity National Bank, the only federally insured and licensed African-American-owned bank in Texas. Lawal was a member of the National Republican Congressional Committee's Business Advisory Council and, in 1994, he was a finalist for the United States Business Entrepreneur of the Year. Lawal is a member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity. He was awarded an honorary doctorate degree in philosophy from Fort Valley State University.

Now head of a multi-billion dollar empire, his Houston-based company, CAMAC, is one of the largest black-owned businesses in the U.S., generating over $2 billion dollars a year.
Now CAMAC has offices in London, Johannesburg, Lagos and Port Harcourt, Nigeria and is involved in oil exploration, refining and trading.
He was awarded the USAfrica Business Person of the Year in 1997 and in 2002 CAMAC was named the largest African-American owned company on the Black Enterprise 100s list.

Sossina M. Haile

Ethiopia/USA / Born: 28 July 1966
Academia:Prof Science & Engineering

Sossina M. Haile is an American chemist, known for developing the first solid acid fuel cells.

Haile's family fled Ethiopia during the coup in the mid-'70s, after soldiers arrested and nearly killed her historian father.
They settled in rural Minnesota where she attended Saint John's Preparatory School (Collegeville, MN), graduating in 1983

She is a professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University, Illinois, USA.
Haile received the NSF National Young Investigator Award (1994–99), Humboldt Fellowship (1992–93), Fulbright Fellowship (1991–92), and AT&T Cooperative Research Fellowship (1986–92).
The Humboldt and Fulbright fellowships supported her research at the Max Planck Institut für Festkörperforschung [Institute for Solid State Research], Stuttgart, Germany (1991–1993).
She earned the 2001 J.B. Wagner Award of the High Temperature Materials Division of the Electrochemical Society, the 2000 Coble Award from the American Ceramic Society, and the 1997 TMS Robert Lansing Hardy Award. In 2018, Haile was elected a Fellow of the Materials Research Society.

She received her B.S. and PhD (1992) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and M.S. from the University of California, Berkeley.
Haile spent three years as an assistant professor at the University of Washington, Seattle. She joined the Caltech faculty in 1996, where she worked for 18 years before moving to Northwestern University in 2015.
Haile created the first solid-acid fuel cell in the late 1990s, using a new type of "superprotonic" compound. Fuel-cell makers balked at the changes needed for her solution. Two of her former graduate students formed a start-up they called Superprotonic to commercialize the device.

Philip Emeagwali

Nigeria/USA / Born: 23 August 1954
Computer Scientist

Philip Emeagwali was born in Akure, Nigeria. He was raised in Onitsha in the South Eastern part of Nigeria.
His early schooling was suspended in 1967 as a result of the Nigerian Civil War. At 13 years, he served in the Biafran army. After the war he completed high-school equivalence through self-study.

Now known as a Nigerian computer scientist. He won the 1989 Gordon Bell Prize for price-performance in high-performance computing applications, in an oil reservoir modeling calculation using a novel mathematical formulation and implementation.
Emeagwali received the 1989 Gordon Bell Prize for an application of the CM-2 massively-parallel computer. The application used computational fluid dynamics for oil-reservoir modeling.
He received a prize in "price/performance" category, with a performance figure of about 400 Mflops/$1M. The winner in the "performance" category, was also the winner of the Price/performance category, but unable to receive two prizes.
Mobil Research and Thinking Machines, used the CM-2 for seismic data processing and achieved the higher ratio of 500 Mflops/$1M. The judges decided on one award per entry. His method involved each microprocessor communicating with six neighbors.

Emeagwali's simulation was the first program to apply a pseudo-time approach to reservoir modeling.
New African "35th-greatest African (and greatest African scientist) of all time"
He was cited by Bill Clinton as an example of what Nigerians can achieve when given the opportunity and is frequently featured in popular press articles for Black History Month.

Mark Shuttleworth

South Africa/Britain / Born: 18 September 1973
Founder Canonical/Ubuntu OP

Mark Richard Shuttleworth is a South African-British entrepreneur who is the founder and CEO of Canonical Ltd., the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system.

In 2002, he became the first South African to travel to space as a space tourist, and indeed the first African from an independent country to travel to space. He lives on the Isle of Man and holds dual citizenship from South Africa and the United Kingdom.

In 1995, Shuttleworth founded Thawte Consulting, a company which specialized in digital certificates and Internet security. In December 1999, Shuttleworth sold Thawte to VeriSign, earning Shuttleworth R3.5 billion (US$575 million, equivalent to $831 million in 2018).

In September 2000, Shuttleworth formed HBD Venture Capital (Here be Dragons), a business incubator and venture capital provider now managed by Knife Capital. In March 2004 he formed Canonical Ltd., for the promotion and commercial support of free software projects, especially the Ubuntu operating system. In December 2009, Shuttleworth stepped down as the CEO of Canonical Ltd, Jane Silber took Canonical CEO position. Shuttleworth resumed the position of CEO of Canonical in July 2017 at the end of Silber's tenure.

In 2004, he returned to the free software world by funding the development of Ubuntu, a Linux distribution based on Debian, through his company Canonical Ltd. In 2005, he founded the Ubuntu Foundation and made an initial investment of 10 million dollars. In the Ubuntu project, Shuttleworth is often referred to with the tongue-in-cheek title "Self-Appointed Benevolent Dictator for Life" (SABDFL). To come up with a list of names of people to hire for the project, Shuttleworth took six months of Debian mailing list archives with him while travelling to Antarctica aboard the icebreaker Kapitan Khlebnikov in early 2004. In September 2005, he purchased a 65% stake of Impi Linux.

On 15 October 2006, it was announced that Mark Shuttleworth became the first patron of KDE, the highest level of sponsorship available. This relationship ended in 2012, together with financial support for Kubuntu, the Ubuntu variant with KDE as main desktop. On 17 December 2009, Mark announced that, effective March 2010, he would step down as CEO of Canonical to focus energy on product design, partnership, and customers. Jane Silber, COO at Canonical since 2004, took on the job of CEO at Canonical. In September 2010, he received an honorary degree from the Open University for this work.

On 9 November 2012, Shuttleworth and Kenneth Rogoff took part in a debate opposite Garry Kasparov and Peter Thiel at the Oxford Union, entitled "The Innovation Enigma". On 25 October 2013, Shuttleworth and Ubuntu were awarded the Austrian anti-privacy Big Brother Award for sending local Ubuntu Unity Dash searches to Canonical servers by default. A year earlier, in 2012, Shuttleworth had defended the anonymisation method used. He later reversed the decision, and no current Ubuntu version does this.

Bernard Francisco Ribeiro

Ghana/Britain / Born: 20 January 1944
Respected Medical Surgeon

Bernard Francisco Ribeiro, Baron Ribeiro,born in Achimota in the Gold Coast (now Ghana), Bernard Ribeiro was educated at Dean Close School, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, and at Middlesex Hospital Medical School.

Now a British surgeon who served as President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England from 2005 to 2008. He was created a life peer in 2010 and sits in the House of Lords on the Conservative benches.

Ribeiro qualified as a doctor at Middlesex Medical School in 1967 and then specialised in surgery, five years later being awarded Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS). From 1979 until his retirement in April 2008, he was consultant general surgeon at Basildon Hospital with a special interest in urology and colorectal surgery, pioneering the use of invasive keyhole surgery, and helping to establish the Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust's advanced laparoscopic unit.

He was elected to the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1998. In 2008 he was awarded the Honorary degree of Doctor of Science by Anglia Ruskin University. Also in 2008 he received an Honorary Fellowship from the American College of Surgeons.