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Africa's Contribution To The World

Medicine 



The world’s first 3D printed transplant of middle-ear bones

3D Printed Middle-Ear Bones - The world’s first transplant of middle-ear bones using 3D printed components. The groundbreaking surgical procedure was pioneered by Professor Mashudu Tshifularo, MD, Head of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at the University of Pretoria’s (UP) Faculty of Health Sciences, and his medical team at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, in South Africa. "By replacing only the ossicles that aren't functioning properly, the procedure carries significantly less risk than known with prostheses and their associated surgical procedures. We used titanium for this procedure, which is biocompatible and an endoscope to do the replacement, so the transplant was quick – taking less than two hours, with minimal scarring,”


First Successful Penis Transplants

First Successful Penis Transplants In December 2014, the first successful penis transplant was performed on a 21-year-old man by specialists led by urologist André van der Merwe from the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa. The surgical team consisted of urologist Andre van der Merwe and plastic surgeon Frank Graewe. The immunosuppression was conducted by Rafique Moosa. The nine-hour procedure used microsurgery to connect blood vessels and nerves. The patient had lost his penis as a result of a botched circumcision procedure he underwent aged 18. As of 13 March 2015, the recipient was reported to have recovered function in the organ, including urination, erection, orgasm and ejaculation, but sensation is expected to take two years to return fully. The doctors who performed the transplant were surprised by this, as they had not expected the patient to recover fully until about December 2016. Given that circumcisions are performed frequently in parts of South Africa to mark a boy's transition to adulthood, and these are often unsanitary procedures, frequently carried out by uncertified amateurs, doctors have said that South Africa has some of the greatest need for penis transplantations in the world. In 2015, the recipient announced that he had successfully conceived a child.


Computer Axial Tomography Scan

CAT Scans - The first one is known as a CAT scan, or computer axial tomography scan, also called the CT scan. This is like a super x-ray machine. While an x-ray machine takes just one picture of your internal structures, a CAT scan takes images of many slices through your body and puts them together into one detailed image. CAT scans have been used by doctors all over the world to help countless people with fractures (broken bones), tumors, and many other ailments. The CAT scan was developed thanks in great part to Allan Cormack, a native South African.

Cormack was born in Johannesburg, South Africa. He attended Rondebosch Boys' High School in Cape Town, where he was active in the debating and tennis teams. He received his B.Sc. in physics in 1944 from the University of Cape Town and his M.Sc. in crystallography in 1945 from the same institution. He was a doctoral student at Cambridge University from 1947–49, and while at Cambridge he met his future wife, Barbara Seavey, an American physics student.


The World First Successful Heart Transplant

Heart Transplants - South African, Dr. Chris Barnard, is known for something pretty amazing as well. On December 3rd, 1967, he performed the very first successful heart transplant anywhere in the world. How has this impacted the world? Well, just in the U.S. alone, thousands of people per year receive a new heart, and a new life, thanks in great part to Dr. Barnard's work.

Science/Engineering 



Source: Public Domain

Batteries - Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications. A prototype Li-ion battery was developed by Akira Yoshino in 1985, based on earlier research by John Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham, Rachid Yazami and Koichi Mizushima during the 1970s–1980s.


Dr Rachid Yazami

Rachid Yazami a Moroccan-born scientist is greatly responsible for this. You can thank him for those small but very powerful batteries that help your favourite devices run properly. Yazami is the co-author involved in over 250 published papers and the co-inventor of over 150 patents related to lithium primary and rechargeable batteries and on new battery chemistry based on fluoride ion.

Minerals/Natural Resources 



Tantalum

Tantalum

- since its discovery, tantalum has been used in a number of applications. In the 21st century, it has become a crucial element in the electronics industry, with over 75% of electronics containing tantalum in some form. In particular, engineers have been able to take advantage of some of tantalum’s properties to make capacitors and other components smaller and more efficient. Tantalum is generally used in applications that require increased heat, corrosion, and chemical resistance. More than half of tantalum’s use is for electrolytic capacitors and vacuum furnace parts. The price for tantalum concentrates $58-65 per lb (Year 2020 estimation)

Tantalum Source Map

Tantalum mined in Central Africa – in Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi - accounted for around 70% of global tantalum concentrate output.

Education/Literacy 



Ancient Egyptians Mathematical Systems

Ancient Mathematical Systems - More than 35,000 years ago, Egyptians scripted textbooks about math that included division and multiplication of fractions and geometric formulas to calculate the area and volume of shapes.


Oldest known Mathematical Artifact

The Lebombo bone - from the mountains between Swaziland and South Africa may be the oldest known mathematical artifact. It dates from 35,000 BCE and consists of 29 distinct notches that were deliberately cut into a baboon's fibula.


Sankoré University

Three philosophical schools in Mali existed during the country's "golden age" from the 12th to the 16th centuries: University of Sankore, Sidi Yahya University, and Djinguereber University.
By the end of Mansa Musa's reign in Mali, the Sankoré University had been converted into a fully staffed University with the largest collections of books in Africa since the Library of Alexandria.
The Sankoré University was capable of housing 25,000 students and had one of the largest libraries in the world with between 400,000 and 700,000 manuscripts.
Timbuktu was a major center of book copying, religious groups, the sciences, and arts. Scholars and students came throughout world to study in its university. It attracted more foreign students than New York University.

Many inventions from Africa or that of native Africans has contributed enormously to the modern world and continue to change the world for better more than we can ask or imagine.

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